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Introduction Croatia
In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
Geography Croatia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
total: 56,542 sq km
water: 128 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro (north) 241 km, Serbia and Montenegro (south) 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 NM
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 23.55%
permanent crops: 2.24%
other: 74.21% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
People Croatia
4,422,248 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 415,873; female 394,414)
15-64 years: 66.1% (male 1,465,488; female 1,454,778)
65 years and over: 15.6% (male 258,943; female 432,752) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.9 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 40.7 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.31% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
12.76 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
11.25 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 7.78 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.37 years
male: 70.76 years
female: 78.2 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.93 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 10 (2001 est.)
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, Bosniak 0.5%, Hungarian 0.4%, Slovene 0.3%, Czech 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Albanian 0.1%, Montenegrin 0.1%, others 4.1% (2001)
Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, others and unknown 6.2% (2001)
Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.8% (2003 est.)
Government Croatia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local short form: Hrvatska
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
Government type:
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
adopted on 22 December 1990
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January 2000), Ante SIMONIC (since 30 July 2002), Zeljka ANTUNOVI (since 27 January 2000), Slavko LINIC (since 27 January 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of power in the Assembly
note: government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS; a sixth party, the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), withdrew in June 2001
election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; note - one seat was added in the November Parliamentary elections; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - House of Counties was abolished in March 2001
election results: Assembly (then referred to as the House of Representatives) - percent of vote by party - HDZ 43.4%, SDP 23%, HNS 7.4%, HSS 6.57%, HSP 6%; seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 34, HNS 10, HSS 9, HSP 7; note - these are preliminary results
elections: Assembly - last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives
Political parties and leaders:
Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Mate GRANIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Ivo BANAC]; Party of Liberal Democrats or LIBRA [Goran GRANIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election; the IDS subsequently left the governing coalition in June 2001 over its inability to win greater autonomy for Istria
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan GRDESIC
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
embassy: Thomasa Jeffersona 2, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
Economy Croatia
Economy - overview:
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with tourism the main factor, but massive structural unemployment remains a key negative element. The government's failure to press the economic reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions. Opponents fear reforms would cut jobs, wages, and social benefits. The government has a heavy backload of civil cases, many involving tenure land. The country is likely to experience only moderate growth without disciplined fiscal and structural reform.
purchasing power parity - $43.12 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $9,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 9%
industry: 33%
services: 58% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 23.3% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
1.7 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 13.2% NA, industry 25.4% NA, services 46.4% NA (2002)
Unemployment rate:
21.7% (2002 est.)
revenues: $8.6 billion
expenditures: $9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
2.8% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
12.12 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 33.6%
hydro: 66%
other: 0.4% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
14.27 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
386 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
3.386 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
29,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
89,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
93.6 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
1.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.84 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
34.36 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
$4.9 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 22.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.4%, Germany 12.5%, Slovenia 8%, Austria 7.3% (2002)
$10.7 billion c.i.f. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Italy 16.8%, Germany 16.4%, Slovenia 7.8%, Russia 6.8%, Austria 6.7%, France 5.2% (2002)
Debt - external:
$16.5 billion (yearend 2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $66 million (2000)
kuna (HRK)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
kuna per US dollar - 7.87 (2002), 8.34 (2001), 8.28 (2000), 7.11 (1999), 6.36 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Croatia
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,721,139 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.3 million (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
1.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)
1.22 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
480,000 (2001)
Transportation Croatia
total: 2,296 km
standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (983 km electrified) (2002)
total: 28,123 km
paved: 23,792 km (including 410 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,331 km (2000)
785 km
note: (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris)
gas 1,374 km; oil 583 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar
Merchant marine:
total: 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 765,830 GRT/1,188,948 DWT
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Hong Kong 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 16, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 5, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 3
59 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 9 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 43
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 34 (2002)
1 (2002)
Military Croatia
Military branches:
Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HV), Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,081,135 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 856,946 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,096 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$520 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.39% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Croatia
Disputes - international:
discussions continue with Bosnia and Herzegovina on sections of the Una River and villages at the base of Mount Pljesevica; parliamentarians are far from ratifying the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia; in late 2002, Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro adopted an interim agreement to settle the disputed Prevlaka Peninsula, allowing the withdrawal of the UN monitoring mission (UNMOP), but discussions could be complicated by the inability of Serbia and Montenegro to come to an agreement on the economic aspects of the new federal union; Croatia and Italy continue to debate bilateral property and ethnic minority rights issues stemming from border changes after the Second World War
Illicit drugs:
transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe