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Introduction Hungary
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and is scheduled to accede to the EU along with nine other states on 1 May 2004. In an April 2003 referendum, 84 percent voted in favor of joining the EU.
Geography Hungary
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 52.2%
other: 45.34% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 2.46%
Irrigated land:
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
People Hungary
10,045,407 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.1% (male 832,033; female 787,336)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,406,046; female 3,523,118)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 544,099; female 952,775) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.4 years
male: 35.7 years
female: 41.1 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
-0.29% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
9.32 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 9.73 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.17 years
male: 67.84 years
female: 76.81 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.25 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
Government Hungary
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local short form: Magyarorszag
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
rule of law based on Western model
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since 4 August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - Fidesz/MDF 48.70%, MSzP 46.11%, SzDSz 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - Fidesz 164, MSzP 178, MDF 24, SzDSz 20
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Laszlo VARGA, chairman]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz-MPP [Jozsef SZASER, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER
embassy: 1054 Szabadsag ter 12, Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
Economy Hungary
Economy - overview:
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation has declined substantially, from 14% in 1998 to 4.7% in 2003; unemployment has persisted around the 6% level. Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Short-term issues include the reduction of the public sector deficit to 3% in 2004 and avoiding unjustified increases in wages.
purchasing power parity - $134 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $13,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.1%
industry: 33.8%
services: 62.1% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
24.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
4.2 million (1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
5.8% (2002 est.)
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
3.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
34.39 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 60.1%
hydro: 0.5%
other: 0.3% (2001)
nuclear: 39%
Electricity - consumption:
35.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
7.261 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
10.43 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
41,190 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
140,700 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
136,600 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
110.7 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
3.231 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
13.37 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
9.587 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
50.45 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
$31.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Germany 34.3%, Austria 8.5%, Italy 5.5%, France 5.4%, US 4.9%, UK 4.5% (2002)
$33.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Germany 25.3%, Austria 7.7%, Italy 7.5%, Russia 6%, China 5%, France 5% (2002)
Debt - external:
$31.5 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $250 million (2000)
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
forints per US dollar - 257.89 (2002), 286.49 (2001), 282.18 (2000), 237.15 (1999), 214.4 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.269 million (July 1999)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
16 (2000)
Internet users:
1.2 million (2001)
Transportation Hungary
total: 7,875 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,620 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage a cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) with a route length of 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria; 156 km of this line is electrified (2002)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 438 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1999)
1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) 3,784 GRT/5,500 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1
49 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 16
5 (2002)
Military Hungary
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,541,426 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,026,912 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,305 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.75% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Hungary
Disputes - international:
Hungary has yet to amend status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in neighboring states, who protest the law
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking