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Introduction Luxembourg
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Geography Luxembourg
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references:
total: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources:
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:
arable land: 25%
other: 75% (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 0%
Irrigated land:
40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Geography - note:
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
People Luxembourg
454,157 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.9% (male 44,182; female 41,640)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 152,963; female 151,061)
65 years and over: 14.2% (male 26,060; female 38,251) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.1 years
male: 37.2 years
female: 38.9 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
1.23% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
11.92 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
9.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 4.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.66 years
male: 74.38 years
female: 81.15 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
87% Roman Catholic, 13% Protestants, Jews, and Muslims (2000)
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
Government Luxembourg
Country name:
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
Government type:
constitutional monarchy
Administrative divisions:
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and DP
Legislative branch:
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held by June 2004)
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2
Judicial branch:
judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:
Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS-PACCOURD
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TERPELUK, Jr.
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
Economy Luxembourg
Economy - overview:
This stable, high-income economy features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 22% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and trans-border workers for more than 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country has maintained a fairly strong growth rate and enjoys an extraordinarily high standard of living.
purchasing power parity - $21.94 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $48,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 30%
services: 69% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
262,300 (of whom 87,400 are foreign cross-border workers primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 90.1%, industry 8%, agriculture 1.9% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.1% (2002 est.)
revenues: $5.5 billion
expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $760 million (2002 est.)
banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Industrial production growth rate:
0% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
457 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 57.3%
hydro: 25.2%
other: 17.5% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
6.07 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
744 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
6.389 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
50,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
634 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
50,700 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
865 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
867 million cu m (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products:
barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products
$10.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners:
Germany 23.9%, France 20.1%, Belgium 10.5%, UK 8.7%, Italy 6.1%, Spain 4.5%, Netherlands 4.4% (2002)
$13.25 billion c.i.f. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Belgium 29.7%, Germany 23%, France 13.2%, Taiwan 6.7%, Netherlands 4.6% (2002)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - donor:
ODA, $160 million (1999)
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 1.06 (2002), 1.12 (2001), 1.09 (2000), 0.94 (1999)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Luxembourg
Telephones - main lines in use:
314,700 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
215,741 (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
285,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
5 (1999)
285,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
8 (2000)
Internet users:
100,000 (2001)
Transportation Luxembourg
total: 274 km
standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified) (2002)
total: 5,189 km
paved: 5,189 km (including 114 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2000)
37 km (on the Moselle)
gas 155 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Merchant marine:
total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,507,258 GRT/2,118,597 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, chemical tanker 12, container 8, liquefied gas 18, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 8
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 21, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 10, Monaco 1, Netherlands 3, Norway 1, United Kingdom 9, United States 3 (2002 est.)
2 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
1 (2002)
Military Luxembourg
Military branches:
Army, Grand Ducal Police
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 114,326 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 93,994 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,636 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$147.8 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.8% (FY01/02)
Transnational Issues Luxembourg
Disputes - international: