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Introduction Niue
Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to about 2,100 in 2002), with substantial emigration to New Zealand, 2,400 km to the southwest.
Geography Niue
Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga
Geographic coordinates:
19 02 S, 169 52 W
Map references:
total: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 260 sq km
Area - comparative:
1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
64 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 19.23%
permanent crops: 7.69%
other: 73.08% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
one of world's largest coral islands
People Niue
2,145 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: NA%
15-64 years: NA%
65 years and over: NA% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.01% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
NA (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean
Ethnic groups:
Polynesian (with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and Tongans)
Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 75%, Latter-Day Saints 10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Niue
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue
former: Savage Island
Dependency status:
self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense; however, these responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue
Government type:
self-governing parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order
on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system:
English common law
note: Niue is self-governing, with the power to make its own laws
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since NA May 2000)
election results: Young VIVIAN elected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - Young VIVIAN (NPP) 70%, Hunukitama HUNUKI (AI) 30%
elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 1 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2005)
head of government: Premier Young VIVIAN (since 1 May 2002)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; six elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 9, independents 11; note - all 20 seats were reelected
elections: last held 21 March 2002 (next to be held in March 2005)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue
Political parties and leaders:
Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]; Alliance of Independents or AI [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
ACP, ESCAP (associate), FAO, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag description:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross
Economy Niue
Economy - overview:
The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry, although Premier LAKATANI announced in February 2002 that Niue will shut down the offshore banking industry. Economic aid from New Zealand in 2002 was about $2.6 million.
purchasing power parity - $7.6 million (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
-0.3% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $3,600 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: 55%
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (1995)
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation:
most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board
Unemployment rate:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
tourism, handicrafts, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
3 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
2.79 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
$137,200 (1999)
Exports - commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
Exports - partners:
NZ mainly, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia (2000)
$2.38 million (1999)
Imports - commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs
Imports - partners:
NZ mainly, Fiji, Japan, Samoa, Australia, US (2000)
Debt - external:
$418,000 (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2.6 million from New Zealand (2002)
New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.162 (2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8629 (1998)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Niue
Telephones - main lines in use:
376 (1991)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
0 (1991)
Telephone system:
domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Transportation Niue
0 km
total: 234 km
paved: 86 km
unpaved: 148 km (2001)
Ports and harbors:
none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
none (2002 est.)
1 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Military Niue
Military branches:
no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Transnational Issues Niue
Disputes - international: